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PMA2015/Lagos-R2 SOI


Summary of the sample design for PMA2015/Lagos (Nigeria)-R2:

In Nigeria, the PMA2020 survey collects data at the state-level to allow for the estimation of key indicators to monitor progress in family planning - both at the population and the service delivery points (SDPs) levels. PMA2015/Lagos-Round 2, the second round of data collection in Lagos state, used a two-­stage cluster design. Primary sampling units were selected using probability proportional to size procedures. The sample was powered to generate state-level estimates of all women mCPR with less than 3% margin of error. To read more details on our survey methodology including the survey tools, training, data processing and response rates, please scroll to the end of the below table.

The table below provides a summary of key family planning indicators and their breakdown by respondent background characteristics. Estimates for all indicators are representative for the state. To view the breakdown by background characteristics of the respondents (including education level, wealth quintile, region etc.), please click on the respective indicator link. Distribution of respondents by background characteristics is available here. Distribution of SDPs by background characteristics is available here.

Additional detail on sample design, data collection and processing, response rates, and standard errors are available below the indicator tables.

Download the full SOI tables >>

PMA2020 Standard
Family Planning Indicators

Round 2
All Women Married Women
Utilization Indicators:
Contraceptive Use    
Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) 28.0 34.9
Modern Contraceptive Prevalence (mCPR) 21.0 26.4
Traditional Contraceptive Prevalence 6.8 8.3
Contraceptive Method Mix    
Contraceptive method mix (stacked bar charts for all/married women)    
Demand for Family Planning and Fertility Preferences:
Unmet need for family planning 17.8 23.7
Demand for family planning 45.6 58.3
Percent of all/married women with demand satisfied by modern contraception 46.1 45.2
Percent of recent births, by intention
Wanted then 72.6 74.9
Wanted later 14.2 13.1
Wanted no more 13.3 11.9
Access, Equity, Quality and Choice:
Percent of users who chose their current method by themselves or jointly with a partner/provider 58.6 89.5
Percent of users who paid for family planning services 39.2 41.4
Method Information Index Components    
Percent of current users who were informed about other methods 43.0 49.6
Percent of current users who were informed about side effects 36.7 41.2
Percent of current users who were told what to do if they experienced side effects 82.3 83.8
Percent of current users who would return and/or refer others to their provider 68.8 74.5
Percent of women receiving family planning information in the past 12 months 9.6 12.2
Service Environment:
Charging fees for family planning    
Contraceptive choice: Availability of at least 3 or at least 5 modern contraceptive methods    
Contraceptive choice: Availability of modern contraception, by method    
Contraceptive stock-outs, by method    
Number of new and continuing family planning visits, by method    

The PMA2015/Lagos-R2 Survey in Detail

Sample Design

Round 1 Sample Design

In Nigeria, the PMA2020 survey collects data at the state-level to allow for the estimation of key indicators to monitor progress in family planning - both at the population and the service delivery points (SDPs) levels. The resident enumerator (RE) model enables replication of the surveys twice a year for the first two years, and annually each year after that, to track progress.

For the first round of data collection in the Lagos state (PMA2014/Lagos), the sample was designed to provide state-level estimates without urban-rural stratification, since the state is predominantly urban, using a two-­stage cluster design. First, the primary sampling unit were selected systematically with probability proportional to size. The master frame of Enumeration Areas (EAs) was based on the 2006 Nigerian population census. Census enumeration areas in Nigeria are on average 47 households in size. In order to obtain an enumeration area of approximately 200 households, a cluster of EAs was constructed – hereinafter referred to as EA cluster. An index enumeration area, along with a list of contiguous EAs and associated sampling probabilities, were provided by the National Population Commission (NPopC). Enumeration areas were combined into EA clusters - primary sampling units in Nigeria - and sampling probabilities were adjusted. A total of 37 EA clusters were selected in Lagos.

In each selected EA cluster, all households, health SDPs, and key landmarks in the EA cluster were listed and mapped by trained REs to create a sampling frame for the second stage of the sampling process. The mapping and listing process and data collection took place between September and October 2014. Mapping and listing took an average of 5 days for each EA cluster. Once listed, field supervisors systematically selected 35 households using a random number-generating mobile-phone application. All eligible women in selected households were approached and asked to provide informed consent to participate in the survey.

For the SDP survey, up to three private SDPs, including pharmacies, within each sampled EA cluster boundary were randomly selected from the listing. In addition, three public health SDPs—a health post, a health center, and a district hospital designated to serve the enumeration area population—were selected.

Round 2 Sample Design

For the second round of PMA2020 data collection in Lagos, Nigeria (PMA2015/Lagos-R2), the project sampled 52 enumeration areas (EAs) to achieve a representative sample of Lagos State. The EAs were selected systematically using probability proportional to size.

Data collection for Round 2 continued in the same 52 EAs selected in Round 1. Mapping and listing in PMA2020 is generally done on an annual basis (typically during the first and third rounds), however due to delays in fieldwork, Round 2 occurred approximately one year after Round 1 and thus listing of households was redone. Field supervisors randomly selected 40 households from the original household listing. A household roster was completed and all eligible women age 15-49 in selected households were approached and asked to provide informed consent (and assent if aged 15-17 years) to participate in the study.

The majority of SDPs are repeated in each round, forming a panel survey. If an EA had more than three private SDPs identified during the listing process, then a new sample of the private SDPs is selected during each round.


PMA2020 uses standardized questionnaires to gather data about households and individual females that are comparable across program countries and consistent with existing national surveys. Prior to launching the survey in each country, local experts review and modify these questionnaires to ensure all questions are appropriate to each setting. All female questionnaires were translated into the local languages, and translations were reviewed for appropriateness.

The household, female, and the service delivery point (SDP) questionnaire) were based on model surveys designed by PMA2020 staff at the Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, the Center for Evaluation Resources and Development (CRERD), Bayero University Kano (BUK), and fieldwork materials of the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS).

All PMA2020 questionnaires are administered using Open Data Kit (ODK) software and Android smartphones. The PMA2015/Lagos-R2 questionnaires were in English and could be switched into local languages (Hausa and Yoruba) on the phone. The questionnaires were translated using available translations from similar population surveys and experts in translation. The interviews were conducted in the local language, or English in a few cases when the respondent was not comfortable with the local language. Female resident enumerators in each enumeration area (EA) administered the household and female questionnaires in the selected households.

The household questionnaire gathers basic information about the household, such as ownership of livestock and durable goods, as well as characteristics of the dwelling unit, including wall, floor and roof materials, water sources, and sanitation facilities. This information is used to construct a wealth quintile index.

The first section of the household questionnaire, the household roster, lists basic demographic information about all usual members of the household and visitors who stayed with the household the night before the interview. This roster is used to identify eligible respondents for the female questionnaire. In addition to the roster, the household questionnaire also gathers data that are used to measure key water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) indicators, including regular sources and uses of WASH facilities used and prevalence of open defecation by household members.

The female questionnaire is used to collect information from all women age 15 to 49 who were listed on the household roster at selected households. The female questionnaire gathers specific information on: education; fertility and fertility preferences; family planning access, choice and use; quality of family planning services; exposure to family planning messaging in the media; and the burden of collecting water on women.

The SDP questionnaire collected information about the provision and quality of reproductive health services and products, integration of health services, and water and sanitation within the SDP.

Training, Data Collection and Processing


The PMA2015/Lagos-R2 fieldwork training started with a training of field supervisors and central staff in the summer of 2014. PMA2020 staff from the Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health led the training. Field supervisors, supported by the central team and PMA2020 team, then became the trainers for the subsequent resident enumerator (RE) training sessions that took place in Lagos before the start of data collection.

Data Collection and Processing

Data collection was conducted between August and September 2015. Unlike traditional paper-and-pencil surveys, PMA2020 uses Open Data Kit (ODK) Collect, an open-source software application, to collect data on mobile phones. All the questionnaires were programmed using this software and installed onto all project smartphones. The ODK questionnaire forms are programmed with automatic skip-patterns and built-in response constraints to reduce data entry errors.

The ODK application enabled REs and supervisors to collect and transfer survey data to a central ODK Aggregate cloud server. This instantaneous aggregation of data also allowed for concurrent data processing and course corrections while PMA2020 was still active in the field. Throughout data collection, central staff at CRERD in Lagos, and the data manager at the Gates Institute at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore, Maryland routinely monitored the incoming data and notified field staff of any potential errors, missing data or problems found with form submissions on the central server. The use of mobile phones combined data collection and data entry into one step; therefore, data entry was completed when the last interview form was uploaded at the end of data collection in September.

Once all data were on the server, data analysts cleaned and de-identified the data, applied survey weights, and prepared the final dataset for analysis using Stata.

Response Rates

The table below shows response rates of household and female respondents for the PMA2015/Lagos-Round 2 survey. Of the 2,080 households selected 1,982 (95.3%) households were occupied at the time of the fieldwork. Among the 1,982 potential respondents, 1,777 consented to the household interview (89.7% response rate).

In the selected households 1,562 eligible women aged 15 to 49 years were identified and 1,429 of them were interviewed (response rate of 91.5%).

Result   Urban Rural Total
Household interviews              
Households selected   2,080 -- 2,080
Households occupied   1,982 -- 1,982
Households interviewed   1,777 -- 1,777
Household response rate* (%)   89.7 -- 89.7
Interviews with women age 15-49
Number of eligible women**   1,562 -- 1,562
Number of eligible women interviewed   1,429 -- 1,429
Eligible women response rate (%)   91.5 -- 91.5
*Household response rate = households completed/households occupied

**Eligible women response rates include only women identified in completed household interviews

Eligible response rate = eligible women interviewed/eligible women

Sample Error Estimates

The following table shows sample errors for the PMA2020 indicators described above. For more information about PMA2020 indicators, including estimate type and base population, click here.

Variable Value[R] Standard Error Confidence Interval
All women age 15-49
Currently using a modern method 0.210 0.014 0.182 0.239
Currently using a traditional method 0.068 0.009 0.049 0.086
Currently using any contraceptive method 0.280 0.019 0.241 0.318
Currently using injectables 0.038 0.005 0.028 0.049
Currently using male condoms 0.082 0.009 0.064 0.100
Currently using implants 0.011 0.003 0.005 0.017
Chose method by self or jointly in past 12 months 0.876 0.020 0.836 0.917
Paid fees for family planning services in past 12 months 0.392 0.037 0.317 0.467
Informed by provider about other methods 0.430 0.040 0.350 0.511
Informed by provider about side effects 0.367 0.034 0.298 0.436
Satisfied with provider: Would return and refer friend/relative to provider 0.688 0.035 0.618 0.757
Visited by health worker who talked about family planning in past 12 months 0.096 0.015 0.066 0.126
Women in union age 15-49
Currently using a modern method 0.264 0.019 0.225 0.302
Currently using a traditional method 0.083 0.012 0.058 0.108
Currently using any contraceptive modern method 0.349 0.027 0.295 0.403
Currently using injectables 0.057 0.008 0.042 0.072
Currently using male condoms 0.089 0.011 0.068 0.110
Currently using implants 0.017 0.005 0.008 0.026
Chose method by self or jointly in past 12 months 0.884 0.021 0.842 0.926
Paid fees for family planning services in past 12 months 0.414 0.039 0.335 0.494
Informed by provider about other methods 0.496 0.042 0.413 0.580
Informed by provider about side effects 0.412 0.038 0.336 0.487
Satisfied with provider: Would return and refer friend/relative to provider 0.745 0.032 0.681 0.809
Visited by health worker who talked about family planning in past 12 months 0.122 0.018 0.087 0.158

Centre for Research, Evaluation Resources and Development (CRERD), Bayero University Kano (BUK), and The Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health at The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) Survey Round 2, PMA2015/Nigeria-R2 (Lagos) Snapshot of Indicators. 2015. Nigeria and Baltimore, Maryland, USA.